Enable apps and games that require large amounts of data to function cheaply while still maximizing availability and safety

₳270,000.00 Requested
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Community Review Results (1 reviewers)
Value for money
Impact / Alignment

Allow projects using Paima Engine (which supports apps, games and soon zk protocols) to leverage "volitions": systems where users can choose whether or not to post the data onchain or elsewhere


A lot of apps have data-heavy use cases, especially with the growing trend of zero-knowledge cryptography, L2 solutions and onchain gaming. However, currently these use-cases cost too much in fees.

Yes Votes:
₳ 595,749,017
No Votes:
₳ 123,556,535
Votes Cast:

This proposal was approved and funded by the Cardano Community via Project F10: Development & Infrastructure Catalyst funding round.

  • Video cover image

[IMPACT] Please describe your proposed solution.

Currently, many growing fields in the blockchain space sometimes require kilobytes of data per transaction to work. Notably, zk cryptography, L2s and web3 gaming

Since these L2s and web3 gaming are both fairly high-frequency use-cases (transactions happen often), solutions like IPFS are not well equipped to store and pin all the different files. A common solution to this is to use a “Data Availability Layer” (DA Layer) such as Celestia or Avail that is optimized for these kinds of use-cases. However, using a DA Layer comes with a disadvantage because you have to trust the DA layer to function properly, and is generally more expensive and slower than posting the data directly to the underlying L1

To tackle this problem in Paima, we propose allowing games and apps using Paima to use “Volitions”, which try to get the best of both worlds. They allow users to choose in which case they post their data directly on the L1, and in which case they post their data on the DA Layer. This allows clients to optimize for the best experience

Notably, we plan to integrate Avail Project (<>) first as we believe they have the highest synergy with the Cardano ecosystem: they are based on Polkadot (whose underlying conesus is inspired by Ouroboros), and they have invested in a research-based approach working with new primitives like Coded Merkel Trees (see link below) to make their technology competitive

Notably, the plan for integration will have the following steps:

  1. Enable Paima to follow both the settlement layer and the DA light client at the same time
  2. Allow a way for clients to choose whether or not data gets posted to the settlement layer or the DA layer
  3. Allow merging L1 and DA layer data into a single stream for Paima apps to handle


[IMPACT] How does your proposed solution address the challenge and what benefits will this bring to the Cardano ecosystem?

This will benefit the Cardano ecosystem by allowing games and apps written using Paima to implement data-heavy use-cases at a relatively low cost, increasing the viability of multiple business ideas

[IMPACT] How do you intend to measure the success of your project?

  1. Number of transactions leveraging the DA layer integration

[IMPACT] Please describe your plans to share the outputs and results of your project?

We will share a template that shows how to integrate Avail into your app / game

[CAPABILITY/ FEASIBILITY] What is your capability to deliver your project with high levels of trust and accountability?

dcSpark and Paima Studios are well renowned companies in the Cardano ecosystem that have a long history of delivering on Catalyst proposals. You can find progress on grants we have previously received at

[CAPABILITY/ FEASIBILITY] What are the main goals for the project and how will you validate if your approach is feasible?

The main goal is to enable projects that are relatively data hungry to still be deployable to the Cardano ecosystem through Paima

We know this project is technically feasible as we have a lot of experience with this kind of technology and we have also talked to the Avail team about our plans

[CAPABILITY/ FEASIBILITY] Please provide a detailed breakdown of your project’s milestones and each of the main tasks or activities to reach the milestone plus the expected timeline for the delivery.

  1. Enable Paima games & apps to be able to specify a DA layer to follow (Avail)
  2. Update Paima client libs to support choosing whether or not data gets posted to the settlement layer or the DA layer
  3. Allow merging L1 and DA layer data into a single stream for Paima apps to handle

[CAPABILITY/ FEASIBILITY] Please describe the deliverables, outputs and intended outcomes of each milestone.

Reference implementations and documentation

[RESOURCES & VALUE FOR MONEY] Please provide a detailed budget breakdown of the proposed work and resources.

  1. 20k
  2. 20k
  3. 20k

[RESOURCES & VALUE FOR MONEY] Who is in the project team and what are their roles?

  • dcSpark (development support)

  • Paima Studios (advising on the use-case)

    [RESOURCES & VALUE FOR MONEY] How does the cost of the project represent value for money for the Cardano ecosystem?

This will increase adoption of data-heavy use-cases like zk and gaming in the Cardano ecosystem, which increases the attractiveness of the Cardano ecosystem and also unlocks more business opportunities

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